Eye: It is a camera mechanism created by God in Human body and most precious one, so wisely take care

VISION: Vision varies with different kinds of disorders of the eye. Ammetropic eye, Glaccomatic eye, Diabetic eye, Hypertensive eye.

The above all refractive Errors can be corrected by wearing spectacles (or) contact lenses.

Main Causes Of Blindness

When crystalline lens or its capsule in the eye, losses transparency, which is known as cataract

About 20 million people are estimated to be blind due to cataract in the world.


  • Gradual dimness of vision
  • Double or multiple vision
  • Occasionally coloured halos around the source of light
  • Frequent changes in spec power toward myopic side
  • Grey or white pupil

Treatment: No medical treatment by drug. Surgery is the treatment of choice. If the patient unable to perform work for which he /she is qualified for cataract surgery.


What is Glaucoma?

When pressure in the eye ball increases the condition is known asglaucoma.

Glaucoma is a major cause of blindness in people, over 40 yrs of age. Almost all blindness due to glaucoma can be prevented by proper and regular management at early stage of the disease.

Aquous humour is produced by ciliary epithelium, circulates in the eye to supply nutrients to different tissues and then get drainedat the angle of Anterior out flow, the pressure of fluid in the eye increases and cause effects upon optic nerve fibres, Bloodvessels, lens, iris, cornea, ciliary body etc.,

Causes of Glaucoma:

Primary glaucoma is of unknown cause, however it may be in herited, All family member of a person with glaucoma should bescreened.

Secondary glaucoma : Cataract, diabetes and tumor.


Acute Glaucoma.

  • Severe pain in the eye.
  • Sudden loss of Vision.
  • Nausea and Vomiting.

Chronic Glaucoma:

  • Mild eye pain
  • Blurred foggy Vision
  • Colored Halos
  • Loss of peripheral Vision

Treatment: It depends upon its co-operation for regular medication and regular assessment of progress of the disease

Surgical Treatment: One eye with presenting symptoms is treated, follow eye should be attended to prevent blindness.

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)

Diabetic Retinopathy refers to the retinal changes that occur inpatients with uncontrolled, long term diabetes mellitus

It is common after the disease has lasted approximately 10years.

Presence of Retinopathy is not related to the progressives of diabetes.

Following factors influence the DR

  • Duration of Diabetes
  • Heredity
  • Adequacy of blood sugar control.
  • Hypertension / pregnancy.


  • Anti-diabetic drugs
  • Laser application
  • Surgical Treatment
Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR)

It refers to the fundus changes occurring in patients sufferingfrom Hypertension

Visual loss is secondary to HR is rare, unlike Diabetes Mellitus following factors influence the development of HR.

  • Severity of Hypertension
  • Duration of Hypertension
  • Age of the patient

Treatment: Energetic treatment with anti-hepertensive drugs, results in remarkable improvement of the fundus distortion.

  • Blinking is very important when working at a computer, blinking moistens eyes to prevent dryness and irritation.
  • When working at a computer, blink rate is less in frequency & in amplitude, about one-third the normal rate with only partial lid closures, according to studies.